It can be as broad as you like, because this is just a starting point.
If you are still picking your specific topic for your PhD, that’s fine,
but you should at least know roughly what area you want to explore.
2. Find your way in
A quick google scholar search for your subject area could turn up as
many as 1 million results. Clearly you can’t read them all, so you need
to look for an easy way in.
The vast majority of academic papers
are written for people already familiar with the subject. They will
refer to theories and methodologies assuming that the reader knows what
So to start with just any paper at random would be a
demoralizing waste of time, as you’ll be overwhelmed by the jargon.
Instead, you need something you can understand easily to give yourself a
foundation of knowledge to build upon.
Textbooks and review
articles can be good places to start, though even these can be highly
technical. If you can’t find one you can understand easily, then look
for a book written for the general, non-academic public.
The idea is to gain a quick, broad background knowledge before getting into more specialised technical detail.
3. History, people & ideas
The idea of a literature review is to give some background and context
to your own work. You need to show how your research fits into the big
picture, relating it to what has been done before.
You don’t need
to write a comprehensive history of your subject, but it helps if you
know roughly how it has developed over time.
So as you read a few
general introductions to your topic, you’ll start to get an overview of
the key ideas and theories, who developed them, and when.
Also note any conflicting ideas, any controversy or disagreement in the field, as you’ll need to know this kind of thing.
Now you can start to look for specific papers.
4. Find the world-changing literature
Once you know who the world changers were, you can go in search of their papers.
You need to make sure you understand these key concepts, as they will
help you decipher other papers which built upon these ideas.
Sometimes, those world changing papers can be tough to read, but as long
as you know roughly what they did and understand the key principle,
5. Get specific
Only once you have a grasp of the key ideas in your field should you get more specific.
There may be several angles you can take in your research, and you may
have to explore many areas of the literature. So divide your literature
search into sections to make it easier to manage. For each section,
think of several keywords to try out in different combinations.
Even when you look at highly specialised sub-topics, there may still be
thousands upon thousands of papers, so you need to filter them. Here
are a few ways to reduce the numbers: •Look at the number of citations as an indication of quality •Make your keywords more specific •Scan the abstract and make a quick decision as to whether it will be relevant or not
Don’t be afraid to reject papers. You can always come back to them later, but you have to start with something manageable.
7. Filter again
You might not be able to read everything in depth immediately. From the papers you selected, give them a ranking A, B, or C.
A = must read, highly relevant, high quality
B = unsure, probably relevant, but not yet sure how
C = probably irrelevant, not what you thought it was when you read the title
If you’ve printed them , put the letter A, B, or C on the front so you
can tell quickly when you come back to them (maybe months or years
8. Use other people’s bibliographies
Even if you
can only find one good quality paper, read the introduction carefully
and see who they cite. There may be a few gems there you didn’t find
with the search engine.
Also see who else has cited that one
paper since it was published (this is also a very quick way to update
your bibliography if you are coming back to it a year or more later).
9. Get to know the big players
In any research field, no matter how specialised, there will be leading
experts or competing research groups. Figure out who they are, and read
10. Make sure your research idea is original
As the saying goes, you can’t prove a negative. How can you prove that
nobody else has done what you plan to do, without searching every paper
Well, it’s worth spending a day or two searching
every keyword combination you can think of related to your specific
11. Write about ideas
When you finally start writing your literature review, focus on ideas and use examples from the literature to illustrate them.
Don’t just write about every paper you have found (I call this the
telephone-directory approach), as it will be tedious to write and
impossible to read.
The aim should always be to cite the best and most relevant research, rather than going for sheer quantity.
12. Remember, you aren’t writing a textbook
So you can leave out big chunks. Write about what is relevant to your research.
13. Vary the detail
When talking about a broad topic, only cite the very, very best papers.
You’ll have a lot to choose from , so why choose anything but the best?
Then when you get into more specialised sections, you can include a
larger number of less well-known papers (but still the highest quality
you can find).
14. Don’t cite anything…
Don’t cite anything you haven’t read or don’t understand
15. Get experience
Your perspective on the literature will be quite different once you
have done your own research. If you are in your first year, get your
literature review done quickly so you can move on with your own work,
and don’t let it hold you back.
It takes time to figure out what
makes a good paper and what makes a bad one, and that comes with
experience of carrying out research, talking to other researchers, and
just reading more.
bukan introduction spt Chapter 1 yang berkaitan dengan background kajian
ko. Ini adalah introduction kepada isi LR yang akan ko tulis. So tak
ada hal punya…. ko boleh tulis kemudian pun tak apa.... yang penting
adalah BODY atau isi bagi LR yang perlu ko buat dulu....
BODY: SLOT 1 (Theme 1) : Common topic
Baca kajian-kajian yang mempunyai topic yang sama wpun dlm bidang /
context berbeza spt animasi dalam subjek lain selain sains. Masukkan
secara umum kepentingan setiap kajian.... brmakna pentingnya animasi
dalam berbagai bidang pendidikan
SLOT 2 (Theme 2) : Main idea
Sudah pasti ada common idea mengapa kajian2 yang berkaitan animation
dilakukan sehingga kini. Satunya mestilah potensi animation menjelaskan
konsep2 sains menggantikan lukisan statik !
SLOT 3 (Theme 3): Main authors Terdapat (mungkin) beberapa leading , prominent authors / researchers – what are their stand about your topic.
SLOT 4 (Theme 4): Methodology
Bandingkan method utama dalam kajian lepas, dan ko mungkin tertarik
untuk menjalankan kaedah yang lebih baik / advanced / comprehensive /
mixed method – apa sahaja asalkan ko boleh pertahan kan stand thesis
SLOT 5 (Theme 5): Definition of terms / keywords
Tak semua kajian guna terms atau keywork yang sama. Jelaskan mengapa
terdapat perbezaan ini dan mengapa ko memilih apa yang ko gunakan.
Istilah misconception misalnya digunakan juga istilah spt
pre-conception, student’s conception yang membawa maksud yang umumnya
SLOT 6 (Theme 6): Theoretical approach / Models Terdapat
banyak teori / model / theoretical framework yang perlu dikupas supaya
teori / model /theretical framework - to get a good overview of the
prominent approaches to your concept.
SLOT 7 (Theme 7): Debatable / arguable statement - agreement
Kajian lepas yang membahaskan isu menyebelahi thesis statement ko – apa
rasional dan bagaimana ia selari dgn thesis statement tersebut.
SLOT 8 (Theme 8): Debatable / arguable statement – disagreement
Kajian lepas yang membahaskan isu yang tidak sepenuhnya menyebelahi
thesis statement ko – apa rasional dan bagaimana ia bertentangan dgn
thesis statement tersebut
SLOT 9 (Theme 9): Main Finding and conclusion Kupas dapatan utama dan conclusion kajian lepas yang tidak mengisi gap kajian yang ko nak jalankan.
SLOT 10 (Theme 10): Specific / Special issues / findings
Ini adalah theme terakhir jika terdapat apa2 kelainan dari adrikel
tertentu (jika ada) yang ko nak kupas yang releven dgn kajian ko.
Misalnya, ada artikel yang kaji simulation atau avatar yang juga ada
kaitan dgn animation
CONCLUSION: Yang ini adalah kesimpulan
LR…. Pandai2lah ko simpulkan apa yang dah ko tulis dalam BODY LR sambil
menegaskan kepentingan kajian dan pendirian ko mengikut thesis
statement yang sendiri.